IN ECCLESIASTES 5:13-6:12, the Teacher enlarges upon two or three grievous evils "under the sun." Here we focus on those described in Ecclesiastes 6.
One of life's immense frustrations involves people who receive from God "wealth, possessions and honor" (Eccl. 6:2) such that they lack nothing their heart desires---yet they lack the ability to enjoy these things. The power to enjoy things (first introduced in Eccl. 5:19) is itself a great gift from God. To have so many other gifts and not this one is immensely troubling. The Teacher does not spell out what exactly has foreclosed on the ability to enjoy all the other gifts. It might be a business failure (Eccl. 5:13-15). But it might be chronic illness, or war, or the evil manipulation of someone more powerful, or even some form of insanity. One might die prematurely, and a "stranger" will enjoy all the things one has accumulated (Eccl. 6:2). Or perhaps a person will die not only unfulfilled and barely noticed, but unlamented ("not receiv[ing] proper burial," Eccl. 6:3). Qoheleth insists that "a stillborn child is better off than he" (Eccl. 6:3). Such a child "comes without meaning, it departs in darkness, and in darkness its name is shrouded" (6:4). But even if someone should live ten thousand years and yet never enjoy all the prosperity God has graciously given him (Eccl. 6:6), his life is meaningless. And in the end he goes to the same place as the stillborn child (Eccl. 6:6).
The chapter ends with a series of blistering rhetorical questions, all designed to substantiate the thesis that, under the sun, everything is "utterly meaningless" (Eccl. 1:2). We work to eat, and eating gives us the strength to go on working: what is the point? (Eccl. 6:7). But if someone replies that a person may not only work and eat, but become a "wise man" (Eccl. 6:8), is it all that clear that the wise are better off than fools? After all, much wisdom may simply bring much frustration and grief, as Qoheleth has already pointed out (Eccl. 1:18). Moreover, isn't it better to be satisfied with the material world---with what one can touch and hear and see and feel, with "what the eye sees"---than to pursue "the roving of the appetite," i.e., all the things hidden from view that we hanker after? For this, too, "is meaningless, a chasing after the wind" (Eccl. 6:9).
Is this too wretchedly pessimistic to be realistic? But for those who are "under the sun" (Eccl. 6:12) and nothing more, what else is there? We talk too much and know too little (Eccl. 6:11-12). God help us! We need a deliverer from outside our myopic horizons.