FEW PSALMS HAVE PROVIDED greater succor to the people who are troubled by the frequent, transparent prosperity of the wicked than Psalm 73.
Asaph begins with a provocative pair of lines: "Surely God is good to Israel, to those who are pure in heart." Does the parallelism hint that the people of Israel are the pure in heart? Scarcely; that accords neither with history nor with this psalm. The second line, then, must be a restriction on the first. Should those who are not pure in heart be equated with the wicked so richly described in this psalm? Well, perhaps, but what is striking is that the next lines depict not the evil of the wicked but the sin of Asaph's own heart. His own heart was not pure as he contemplated "the prosperity of the wicked" (73:3). He envied them. Apparently this envy ate at him until he was in danger of losing his entire moral and religious balance: his "feet had almost slipped" (73:2).
What attracted Asaph to the wicked was the way so many of them seem to be the very picture of serenity, good health, and happiness (73:4-12). Even their arrogance has its attractions: it seems to place them above others. Their wealth and power make them popular. At their worst, they ignore God with apparent total immunity from fear. They seem "always carefree, they increase in wealth" (73:12).
So perhaps righteousness doesn't pay: "Surely in vain have I kept my heart pure; in vain have I washed my hands in innocence" (73:13). Asaph could not quite bring himself to this step: he recognized that it would have meant a terrible betrayal of "your children" (73:15) -- apparently the people of God to whom Asaph felt loyalty and for whom, as a leader, he sensed a burden of responsibility. But all his reflections were "oppressive" to him (73:16), until three profound realizations dawned on him.
First, on the long haul the wicked will be swept away. As Asaph entered the sanctuary, he reflected on the "final destiny" (73:17-19, 27) of those he had begun to envy, and he envied them no more.
Second, Asaph himself, in concert with all who truly know God and walk in submission to him, possesses so much more than the wicked -- both in this life and in the life to come. "I am always with you," Asaph exults; "you hold me by my right hand. You guide me with your counsel, and afterward you will take me into glory" (73:23-24).
Third, Asaph now sees his bitterness for the ugly sin it is (73:21-22), and resolves instead to draw near to God and to make known all God's deeds (73:28).