The Gospel Coalition

Editors' Note: We're excited to welcome back Wheaton College professor Leland Ryken as our literature scholar in residence to guide us in reading together the classic Nathaniel Hawthorne short story "Young Goodman Brown." Last week week he introduced the work and described the literary conventions and context. This week he prompts discussion of the style and substance of this enduring classic.


Previously in Commending the Classics:




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For all its excitement as a fantasy adventure story, "Young Goodman Brown" also embodies issues central to our life in the world and in the church. For purposes of analysis, the following discussion guide arranges the interpretation of the story into five questions.

Reach your own conclusions after reading the story or feel free to follow along as I answer.

Why must Young Goodman Brown make his journey into the forest?

In the opening paragraphs of the story, we do not yet know the nature of the impending mysterious journey into the forest, but Hawthorne skillfully generates a great sense of urgency. When Faith attempts to dissuade her husband, suggesting that he instead go into the forest by daylight, he replies, "My journey, as thou callest it [hinting at the allegorical level of meaning] . . . must needs be done 'twixt now and sunrise." Why "must" the journey occur? Because it is part of growing up and becoming an adult. This is a coming-of-age initiation story. No one can avoid discovering what Young Goodman Brown discovers about human nature

What does the forest represent in this story?

Hawthorne does a masterful job of answering that question himself. He keeps adding details that finally produce one of the most vivid visions of evil in all of literature. Hawthorne leaves us in no doubt that the forest represents the principle and practice of evil. The presiding minister is Satan. The vocabulary of wicked and evil and dark and sin permeates the pages.

What discovery does Young Goodman Brown make in the forest?

The protagonist makes two discoveries in the forest, and both focus on hidden evil. First, Young Goodman Brown discovers that everyone in his acquaintance has a dual nature. In the village and by daylight, most of the people in the forest appear virtuous and pious. Some of them are religious and civic leaders. The protagonist discovers in the darkness of the nighttime forest that these same people have an evil side. To heighten this fact of human nature, Hawthorne pictures the people in the forest as being actively committed to evil---even enthusiasts for it. Of course we are shocked as we view that spectacle. The presiding "minister" at the service says, "Welcome . . . to the communion of your race. . . .  This night it shall be granted you to know their secret deeds. . . .  Now ye are undeceived . . . [and] conscious of the secret guilt of others."

But the evil is internal and personal as well as public. Young Goodman Brown discovers that he himself is evil. At one point we are told that Young Goodman Brown "was himself the chief horror of the scene." At the climactic moment in the service, the protagonist steps forward to join the congregation, "with whom he felt a loathful brotherhood by the sympathy of all that was wicked in his heart." No one can avoid making this self-discovery. It comes with the territory of being human. This is one thing that makes the story so convicting, and it is to Hawthorne's credit that he does not allow us self-righteously to make charges of hypocrisy about others and exempt ourselves.

Exactly what "faith" does Young Goodman Brown lose in the forest?

This is where the interpretation of the story becomes controversial and legitimately multiple. At a key moment, Young Goodman Brown cries, "My Faith is gone! . . .  There is no good on earth." Primarily and indisputably, Young Goodman Brown loses his faith in the goodness of people. Satan tells the worshipers that "all whom ye have reverenced from youth" and "deemed holier than yourselves" are actually members "in my worshiping assembly."

A second meaning may exist as well. Perhaps Young Goodman Brown has given up his own Christian faith. After all, when he dies and is carried in "a goodly procession" to the cemetery, "they carved no hopeful verse upon his tombstone, for his dying hour was gloom."

Where does Young Goodman Brown go wrong?

At a theological level, the story asserts the doctrine of original sin. Given the universal sinful condition of the human race, how do we manage the situation? What we know of Hawthorne's views on human nature does not allow us to interpret the story (as it is often interpreted in the secular classroom) as saying that belief in sin is an illusion needlessly foisted on the human race by Christianity and preeminently by Puritans and Calvinists.

I remember sitting in a classroom at the University of Oregon and hearing the professor offer the interpretation that the spectacle of a disillusioned Young Goodman Brown is a picture of what happens when a person accepts the premises of Christianity and Puritanism. The implied corollary was, Surely you don't want to be embittered and disillusioned like the protagonist, so you should reject Christian notions of sin. I momentarily felt that I was present at an academic version of the forest meeting, seeing new ways in which the secular mind perverts truth.

The story accepts sin as a "given" of life in this world and then asks us to consider what we plan to do with that knowledge. Young Goodman Brown mistakes half of the truth about human nature as the total truth. This mistake is a lie that Satan asserts in the forest. He tells his congregants, "Evil must be your only happiness." Young Goodman Brown is easy prey to this instruction. When he cries out that his Faith is gone, he adds, "Come, devil; for to thee is this world given." When Young Goodman Brown appears on the street the next morning, he is a "distrustful, if not a desperate, man," and when he attends a church service, all he can hear is "an anthem of sin."

As readers, we are invited not to make the same mistake. The characters who attend the service of evil in the nighttime forest also exist in the daily light of the village. Old Deacon Gookin can be seen "at domestic worship." Goody Cloyse can be observed "catechizing a little girl." On Sabbath day, "the congregation was singing a holy psalm." If the people of Salem village are partly evil, they are also partly redeemed.

Further Reflection or Discussion


The story does a masterful job of posing a difficult dilemma, namely, how to live with our knowledge of the dual nature of people around us, as well as our own. In the figure of the protagonist, the story puts before us a negative example to avoid. But this merely clears a space for the difficult task of applying the main premise of the story: the hidden evil and therefore hypocrisy that characterizes every person. Here are some questions to prompt reflection or discussion:



Comments:

[...] see earlier reader guides from Leland Ryken on Albert Calmus's The Stranger and "Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorne, along with Kathleen Nielson on the short stories of Flannery O'Connor. And [...]

william brown

December 17, 2012 at 01:59 PM

Well, since no one else is commenting, I guess Iíll jump right into it ÖÖ

Iím glad to see another literature discussion. I enjoyed the Camus reading and discussion a few months ago.

While I agree with most of what Dr. Ryken said I will have to add qualification to his conclusion here: ďNo one can avoid discovering what Young Goodman Brown discovers about human natureĒ; and ď At the climactic moment in the service, the protagonist steps forward to join the congregation, "with whom he felt a loathful brotherhood by the sympathy of all that was wicked in his heart." No one can avoid making this self-discovery.Ē

Whilst, this is true, itís certainly a matter of degree. Iíd say that modern man has become expert in denying this aspect of his nature. Since the advent of the self-esteem movement and the gradual denial of original sin that has become so deeply embedded in our institutions and culture, I think that the balance has swung pretty far away from this self-understanding.

Perhaps the great self-rationalisations and delusions that provide cover for the reality and depth of human depravity started to fade preeminently with and since the Enlightenment and itís gradual replacement of the concept of original sin with the utopian perfectibility of manís nature. Jacques Barzun, Christopher Dawson, and Paul Johnson have written much about that.

I believe that this gradual denial lies at the root of the recent totalitarians, death camps, and the current culture of death that includes the mass destruction of human life in abortion, but is moving on to euthanasia, and taking other forms as well.

The key always is in the balance; in this case the Bible brings us back to realty, providing a clear moral compass to maintain a prudent course between a clear understanding of our sin nature and our bent toward evil, as against our innate goodness as created in the image of God, the Ďimago Dei.

Well, I had a number of things to say, but this is getting long, so Iíll stop here.

Hope someone else will chime in.

--William F. Brown
Forest, Virginia

william brown

April 2, 2013 at 12:12 PM

Chadley,
These are excellent comments with insightful perspective. Many good ideas I had not thought of. I'll need to think about some of this and hopefully post some follow-up.

Maybe the lack of literary background is an asset :)

--Bill

I must say though, that I wish that the host, Dr. Ryken would take some small part in these discussions.

Chadley

April 2, 2013 at 09:53 AM

(Also, thank you Dr. Ryken for providing the recommendation and discussion! I've been wanting to delve into the classics, and this was a good, short way for me to begin to do just that! God bless.)

Chadley

April 2, 2013 at 09:50 AM

I'm sure a book could be written about this story, and therefore this discussion is merely a brief survey--however, it seems that the devil's baptismal sermon deserves more attention. The devil's persuasion relies on supplying Goodman with an unhealthy curiosity of "the mystery of sin", as opposed to the mystery of righteousness--or greater still the mystery of God's righteousness in the midst of sin!

The next step in the devil's persuasion is dismantling Goodman's hope for righteousness. As the devil points out, Goodman, knowing his own bent towards evil (made evident simply by his evil purpose into the forest), depends on Faith for his faith in the existence of righteousness. The devil, in his deception, asserts that they can now be undeceived now knowing that evil is all there is. This assertion reveals, I think, that the evil congregation of church-folk truly are genuine in their daylight piety--they are truly righteous--for the devil uses deception to convince Goodman otherwise (and deception is, after all, the vehicle of the devil's work).

Lastly, the devil offers Goodman solace in the communion of evildoers--he is not alone in his sinfulness because everyone is of sinful kin. Again, the devil is revealed as a liar, for Goodman succumbs to the devil's worldview, and yet he ends up more alone than before. There is no communion in the devil's half-truth--only isolation. However, if Goodman had known the whole truth--that the church-folk were both genuinely evil and righteous at times--he would have found communion with them, for he would no longer be living in absolute distrust of their piety.

Bonus result of the devil's deception: Goodman, in believing that sin is all there is, ends up believing that he is better than the church-folk (read: more righteous) because he looks down at them in condescension for their daylight piety. This means that he perceives himself as less bad than the rest; he does not even live consistently with the half-truth he bought from the devil.

Annnnnnnd all of what I just said is likely just drivel--I have practically no background in literature; I'm just testing the waters, spewing out my thoughts onto the blogosphere. :P

Godspeed,
Chadley

Chadley

April 2, 2013 at 08:27 PM

Bill,
I must say, I'm delightfully shocked to see that my comment was read at all by anyone--thank you! As for Dr. Ryken, I am sure that he wishes he had the time to partake in this discussion. :)

Godspeed,
Chadley